History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational Technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time periods have put forwarded different explanations of Educational Technology. Educational Technology is a boring and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where Technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the importance and element education for implementing, evaluating, and managing approaches to those problems involved in all issues with human learning.

Educational Technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five staging.

The first stage of educational Technology is coupled with the use of aids like maps, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational Technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational Technology is associated with the 'electronic revolution' with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational Technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational Technology is associated with the development of mass media which often led to 'communication revolution' for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational Technology is discernible by the individual process of instruction. The technology of developed learning and developed instruction provided a new dimension to educational Technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational Technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, developed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational Technology is a thorough way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the complete process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational Technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational Technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; particularly the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by eradicate gallstones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from gallstones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments most important. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger raft ship Technology to migrate in spot for their another across the Water, by which they developed their first informal education of comprehension of the water currents, climate, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period), for gardening practice, shiny stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining Technology. The shiny axes were so effective that with appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of plant farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to gardening settlement. Ancient tools conserved in museums, cave artwork like Altamira Cave in Italy, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, Italy etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Movement of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with birdwatcher and later bronze, an alloy of tin and birdwatcher, being the materials of their choice.

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The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the information of iron smelting Technology to lessen the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational Technology during the period of Ancient civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational Technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures designed to implement a particular culture of also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the Technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour designed to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in Technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other organizations in the world to look at new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Pit Civilization was an early on Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily blossomed around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River pit and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today's Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some perhaps the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people chatted. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from directly to left. Most of the writing was found on elephant seals and sealings of probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the information of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. These folks were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. In. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script's pattern is closer to that of verbal words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, potty paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill down, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the turbo charge furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and firearm pulverulence. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational Technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest enduring and used dialects in the world. Their script was consisting of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was consisting of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs of discovered and rescued latter on supplies the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational Technology during Ancient and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean and beyond by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of content spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the content spinning wheel with increasing availabilit of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime think about the development of printing Technology.

The technology of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German developer. The technology of printing press was a prime developmental think about the history of educational Technology to convey the instruction as per the importance of the complex and advanced- Technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial stages of development, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were counted heavily upon simple things like the record, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational Technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like maps and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of Technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, maps, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic relation to educational Technology through her development of ranked materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject theme for each individual novice. Modern educational Technology suggests many file format of Montessori's idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage's design of a general purpose precessing device laid the basis of the modern computer and in 1943, the first precessing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O. E. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were remarkable changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the country, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in British isles were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney D. Pressey, a psycho therapist of Iowa state university developed a self-teaching machine called 'Drum Tutor' in 1920. Mentor Skinner, however, in his famous article 'Science of Learning and art of Teaching' published in 1945 pleaded for the effective use of the information derived from behavioral mindsets to school room procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stops in Berlin, Open routine television begun to provide primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in Great britain, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial movement in america and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational Technology. In this way, the beginning of educational Technology came about in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached Great britain, Europe and India.

Before around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep absence of teachers in america and therefore an urgent need of educational Technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production Technology in america.

Team teaching had its origin in america in the mid of fifties and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as an element of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Grow from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, "The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain".

In 1961, Small teaching technique was first implemented by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Gadgets is the main Technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all giving her a very offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today's school room is more likely to be a Technology lab, a place with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi made it possible for laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual school room or may have been listening to a podcast or enjoying a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to manage up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conventions, workshops at national and international level utilizing the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened limitless number of doors of opportunities for today's novice to make their life happier than you ever have.

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